ZeTox – Toxicology Services


icon-reproduction-tox ReproductionTox – Reproduction Toxicology

The assessment of animal reproductive performance (both for males and females) is essential in the ecotoxicology field. There is proven evidence that some chemicals can affect sexual function, fertility, and development in animals. Therefore, reproductive and developmental toxicology remains an evolving field that is constantly under public scrutiny.

As technology and scientific knowledge advance, regulatory agencies are demanding new types of data derived from studies that minimize the use of animals in accordance with the 3 R's: replacement, reduction, and refinement. Zebrafish is the best tool to achieve this.

ReproductionTox - Reproduction Toxicology

An alternative method for in vivo high throughput assessment of reproductive toxicity.


Information of value for the estimation of reproductive impairment of a substance in only 21 days.

Applicable to a wide range of compounds regardless of mode of action, volatility, solubility and hydrophobicity.

Simultaneous assessment of general malformations and abnormal behaviors. 

Method description

According to the OECD guideline 229. Male and female fish in a reproductive status are exposed together in test vessels for 21 days. The assay is conducted using three chemical exposure concentrations spaced by a constant factor not exceeding  10, as well as a water and solvent control.  Two replicates per treatment are used (each vessel containing 5 males and  5  females). Quantitative fecundity is monitored daily. On day 21, vitellogenin levels are measured and, optionally, gonads are fixed for histopathological evaluation.


Determination of the following parameters at day 21:

  • NOEC: No Observed Effect Concentration
  • LOEC: Lowest Observable Effect Concentration 
  • LC50: Lethal Concentration 50 
  • Survival
  • General morphological abnormalities
  • Abnormal behavior
  • Fecundity - egg production
  • Vitellogenin levels
  • Histopathological evaluation (optional)

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  1. OECD. 2012. Test No. 229: Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay.